What are the differences between a pointer variable and a reference variable in C++?

  1. A pointer can be re-assigned:

    int x = 5;
    int y = 6;
    int *p;
    p = &x;
    p = &y;
    *p = 10;
    assert(x == 5);
    assert(y == 10);

    A reference cannot be re-bound, and must be bound at initialization:

    int x = 5;
    int y = 6;
    int &q; // error
    int &r = x;
  2. A pointer variable has its own identity: a distinct, visible memory address that can be taken with the unary & operator and a certain amount of space that can be measured with the sizeof operator. Using those operators on a reference returns a value corresponding to whatever the reference is bound to; the reference’s own address and size are invisible. Since the reference assumes the identity of the original variable in this way, it is convenient to think of a reference as another name for the same variable.

    int x = 0;
    int &r = x;
    int *p = &x;
    int *p2 = &r;
    assert(p == p2); // &x == &r
    assert(&p != &p2);
  3. You can have arbitrarily nested pointers to pointers offering extra levels of indirection. References only offer one level of indirection.

    int x = 0;
    int y = 0;
    int *p = &x;
    int *q = &y;
    int **pp = &p;
    **pp = 2;
    pp = &q; // *pp is now q
    **pp = 4;
    assert(y == 4);
    assert(x == 2);
  4. A pointer can be assigned nullptr, whereas a reference must be bound to an existing object. If you try hard enough, you can bind a reference to nullptr, but this is undefined and will not behave consistently.

    /* the code below is undefined; your compiler may optimise it
     * differently, emit warnings, or outright refuse to compile it */
    int &r = *static_cast<int *>(nullptr);
    // prints "null" under GCC 10
        << (&r != nullptr
            ? "not null" : "null")
        << std::endl;
    bool f(int &r) { return &r != nullptr; }
    // prints "not null" under GCC 10
        << (f(*static_cast<int *>(nullptr))
            ? "not null" : "null")
        << std::endl;

    You can, however, have a reference to a pointer whose value is nullptr.

  5. Pointers can iterate over an array; you can use ++ to go to the next item that a pointer is pointing to, and + 4 to go to the 5th element. This is no matter what size the object is that the pointer points to.

  6. A pointer needs to be dereferenced with * to access the memory location it points to, whereas a reference can be used directly. A pointer to a class/struct uses -> to access its members whereas a reference uses a ..

  7. References cannot be put into an array, whereas pointers can be (Mentioned by user @litb)

  8. Const references can be bound to temporaries. Pointers cannot (not without some indirection):

    const int &x = int(12); // legal C++
    int *y = &int(12); // illegal to take the address of a temporary.

    This makes const & more convenient to use in argument lists and so forth.

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