Don’t understand why UnboundLocalError occurs (closure) [duplicate]

Python doesn’t have variable declarations, so it has to figure out the scope of variables itself. It does so by a simple rule: If there is an assignment to a variable inside a function, that variable is considered local.[1] Thus, the line

counter += 1

implicitly makes counter local to increment(). Trying to execute this line, though, will try to read the value of the local variable counter before it is assigned, resulting in an UnboundLocalError.[2]

If counter is a global variable, the global keyword will help. If increment() is a local function and counter a local variable, you can use nonlocal in Python 3.x.

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