Python sockets error TypeError: a bytes-like object is required, not ‘str’ with send function

The reason for this error is that in Python 3, strings are Unicode, but when transmitting on the network, the data needs to be bytes instead. So… a couple of suggestions:

  1. Suggest using c.sendall() instead of c.send() to prevent possible issues where you may not have sent the entire msg with one call (see docs).
  2. For literals, add a 'b' for bytes string: c.sendall(b'Thank you for connecting')
  3. For variables, you need to encode Unicode strings to byte strings (see below)

Best solution (should work w/both 2.x & 3.x):

output="Thank you for connecting"

Epilogue/background: this isn’t an issue in Python 2 because strings are bytes strings already — your OP code would work perfectly in that environment. Unicode strings were added to Python in releases 1.6 & 2.0 but took a back seat until 3.0 when they became the default string type. Also see this similar question as well as this one.

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