The short answer is no. ECMAScript (the standard JS is based on) does not support operator overloading.
As an aside, in ECMAScript 7, you’ll be able to overload a subset of the standard operators when designing custom value types. Here is a slide deck by language creator and Mozilla CTO Brendan Eich about the subject. This won’t allow arbitary operators, however, and the overloaded meaning will only be applied to value types. <- haha that ended up not happening.
It is possible to use third party tools like sweet.js to add custom operators though that’d require an extra compilation step.