How to change data points color based on some variable

This is what matplotlib.pyplot.scatter is for.

If no colormap is specified, scatter will use whatever the default colormap is set to. To specify which colormap scatter should use, use the cmap kwarg (e.g. cmap="jet").

As a quick example:

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import matplotlib.colors as mcolors
import numpy as np

# Generate data...
t = np.linspace(0, 2 * np.pi, 20)
x = np.sin(t)
y = np.cos(t)

plt.scatter(t, x, c=y, ec="k")

enter image description here

One may specify a custom color map and norm

cmap, norm = mcolors.from_levels_and_colors([0, 2, 5, 6], ['red', 'green', 'blue'])
plt.scatter(x, y, c=t, cmap=cmap, norm=norm)

enter image description here

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