How to check that the passed Iterator is a random access iterator?

If Iterator is a random access iterator, then


will be std::random_access_iterator_tag. The cleanest way to implement this is probably to create a second function template and have Foo call it:

template <typename Iterator>
void FooImpl(Iterator first, Iterator last, std::random_access_iterator_tag) { 
    // ...

template <typename Iterator>
void Foo(Iterator first, Iterator last) {
    typedef typename std::iterator_traits<Iterator>::iterator_category category;
    return FooImpl(first, last, category());

This has the advantage that you can overload FooImpl for different categories of iterators if you’d like.

Scott Meyers discusses this technique in one of the Effective C++ books (I don’t remember which one).

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