You can compare hashes directly for equality:

```
hash1 = {'a' => 1, 'b' => 2}
hash2 = {'a' => 1, 'b' => 2}
hash3 = {'a' => 1, 'b' => 2, 'c' => 3}
hash1 == hash2 # => true
hash1 == hash3 # => false
hash1.to_a == hash2.to_a # => true
hash1.to_a == hash3.to_a # => false
```

You can convert the hashes to arrays, then get their difference:

```
hash3.to_a - hash1.to_a # => [["c", 3]]
if (hash3.size > hash1.size)
difference = hash3.to_a - hash1.to_a
else
difference = hash1.to_a - hash3.to_a
end
Hash[*difference.flatten] # => {"c"=>3}
```

Simplifying further:

Assigning difference via a ternary structure:

```
difference = (hash3.size > hash1.size) \
? hash3.to_a - hash1.to_a \
: hash1.to_a - hash3.to_a
=> [["c", 3]]
Hash[*difference.flatten]
=> {"c"=>3}
```

Doing it all in one operation and getting rid of the `difference`

variable:

```
Hash[*(
(hash3.size > hash1.size) \
? hash3.to_a - hash1.to_a \
: hash1.to_a - hash3.to_a
).flatten]
=> {"c"=>3}
```